مقاله متد اندازه گیری هوش
Method of Measuring Intelligence
There are a number of different
methods which purport to measure intelligence, the most famous of which
is perhaps the IQ, or 'Intelligence Quotient' test. The 'Stanford-Binet
Intelligence Scale' began life in early 20th century Paris, as part of
Alfred Binet’s efforts to educate children with learning difficulties.
Those that obtained a score below their age were considered "retarded".
IQ is a 'psychometric' test, meaning it
measures mental ability. However, defining intelligence is far from
simple. There are two main schools of thought. The first believes in an
inherited, genetically determined intellect that can be measured. The
second group of psychologists believe in many intelligences, the
development of which may be the result of our social background. They
also think that measuring these intelligences is also problematic.
The modern day IQ test measures a variety
of different types of ability such as verbal, mathematical, spatial,
memory and reasoning. The test is then 'pre-tested' on a group of people
representative of the wider population. Then it's graded so that the
majority of people will be get between 90-110.
When graphed, this is a curve in the
classic 'bell' shape where most people are distributed around the
average intelligence (or intelligence score) and few people are at the
extreme ends of low and high intelligence.